Ecosystem Diversity

Pakistan has a great variety of landscapes. While riverine forests grow along the banks of rivers, mangrove forests are found in the Indus delta as well as along the coast, and corals have been discovered along the Baluchistan coast. There are mountain ranges along the western border with Afghanistan, and sandy deserts along the eastern border with India. The vegetation is dry (with over 90% of the country classified under dry and sub-humid lands as defined by CBD) and sub-humid land comprised of xerophytic shrubs and small trees, grasslands and steppe. This variation in relief and climate has bestowed Pakistan with rich biodiversity and many ecosystems, habitats and species of global significance.

Ecozone/Habitat Type CBD Thematic Area Area(ha) % of total Area
Mangrove and littoral Marine and Coastal                 550,189 <1%
Tropical thorn forest Dry lands,Agriculture           38,146,635 43.50%
Arid sub-tropical forest Dry lands,Agriculture           30,035,234 34.20%
Steppe forest and alpine dry steppe Mountain              9,305,417 10.60%
Dry sclerophylous and tropical deciduous forest Dry Sub humid Lands                 471,561 <1%
Sub-tropical pine forest Mountain              2,163,320 <1%
Dry temperate coniferous Mountain              1,831,506 <1%
Himalayan moist temperate forest Mountain              1,070,736 <1%
Permanent snow,alpine meadows & sub-alpine scrub Mountain              4,220,152 <1%
Total           87,794,747 100%